Post Thu May 24, 2012 2:16 pm

Glossary of chess-2

Glossary of chess


1. Candidates Match

A knockout match in the Candidates Tournament.

2. Capped piece
A certain piece with which one player tries to deliver checkmate. When the capped piece is a pawn, it is called a pion coiffé (French for capped pawn). Playing with a capped piece is a handicap in chess.

3. Capture
Remove the opponent's piece or pawn from the board by taking it with one's own piece or pawn. Except in the case of an en passant capture, the capturing piece or pawn does so by occupying the same square that the captured piece or pawn occupied.

4. Castling
A special move involving both the king and one rook. Its purpose is generally to protect the king and develop the rook. Castling on the kingside is sometimes called castling short and castling on the queenside is called castling long; the difference is based on whether the rook moves a short distance(two squares 0-0) or a long distance (three squares 0-0-0).
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5. Centralization
Moving a piece or pieces toward the center of the board. In general, pieces are best placed in or near the center of the board because they control a large number of squares and are available for play on either flank as needed. Because of their limited mobility, knights in particular benefit from being centralized.

6. Check
An attack on the king. The attacked king is said to be in check.

7. Checkmate
A position in which a player's king is in check and the player has no legal move (i.e cannot move out of check). A player whose king is checkmated loses the game.

8. Chess960
A chess variant with a randomized positioning of non-pawn pieces to start the game.
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9. Classical
• An opening system geared towards forming a full pawn center.

• A game using a longer time control such as 1-2 hour; the opposite of fast chess categories such as rapid, blitz or bullet.

10. Clearance
Removal of pieces from a rank, file or diagonal so that a bishop, rook or queen is free to move along it. A related term is "clearing the diagonal": removing pieces from a diagonal so that an enemy bishop, usually a fianchettoed bishop, has no targets to attack.

11. Closed file
A file on which black and white both have a pawn.

12. Closed tournament
A tournament in which only invited or qualifying players may participate, as opposed to an open tournament. Also called an invitational tournament.

13. Combination
A clever sequence of moves, often involving a sacrifice, to gain the advantage. The moves of the other player are usually forced, i.e. a combination does not give the opponent too many possible lines of continuation.

14. Connected passed pawns
Passed pawns on adjacent files. These are considered to be unusually powerful (often worth a minor piece or rook if on the sixth rank or above and not properly blockaded) because they can advance together.

15. Connected rooks
Two rooks of the same color on the same rank or file with no pawns or pieces between them. Connected rooks are usually desirable. Players often connect rooks on their own first rank or along an open file. cf. Doubled rooks.

16. Control of the centre/center
Having one or more pieces that attack any of the four centre squares; an important strategy, and one of the main aims of openings.

17. Counterattack
An attack that responds to an attack by the other player.

18. Countergambit
A gambit offered by Black, for example the Greco Counter Gambit, usually called the Latvian Gambit today (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5?!); the Albin Countergambit (1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5); and the Falkbeer Countergambit (1.e4 e5 2.f4 d5).

19. Cover

To protect a piece or control a square. For example, to checkmate a king on the side of the board, the five squares adjacent to the king must all be covered.

20. Cross-check

A cross-check is a check played in reply to a check, especially when the original check is blocked by a piece which itself either delivers check or reveals a discovered check from another piece.

21. Dark squares
The 32 dark-coloured squares on the chessboard, such as a1 and h8. A dark square is always located at a player's left hand corner.

22. Dark-square bishop
One of the two bishops that moves on the dark squares, situated in c1 and f8 in the initial position.

23. Dead draw
A drawn position in which neither player has any realistic chance to win. A dead draw may refer to a position in which it is impossible for either player to win (such as insufficient material), or it may refer to a simple, lifeless position which would require a major blunder before either side would have a chance to win.

24. Defence
(1) A move or plan which tries to meet the opponent's attack; (2) an opening played by Black, for example the Scandinavian Defence, King's Indian Defense, English Defense, etc.

25. Develop
In the opening, moving a piece from its original square to make it more active. To redevelop a piece means to move it to a better square after it has already been developed.

26. Discovered attack
An attack made by a queen, rook or bishop when another piece or pawn moves out of its way.

27. Discovered check
A discovered attack to the king. This occurs when a player moves a piece, resulting in another piece putting their opponents king in check.

28. Double attack

Two attacks made with one move: these attacks may be made by the same piece (in which case it is a fork); or by different pieces (a situation which may arise via a discovered attack in which the moved piece also makes a threat). The attacks may directly threaten opposing pieces, or may be threats of another kind: for instance, to capture the queen and deliver checkmate.

29. Double check

A check delivered by two pieces at the same time. A double check necessarily involves a discovered check.

30. Doubled pawns
A pair of pawns of the same color on the same file; generally considered a weakness due to their inability to defend each other.

31. Doubled rooks
A powerful position in which two of a player's rooks are placed on the same file or rank with no other chessmen between them. In this position, they defend each other while attacking both laterally and along the shared row. The position especially can be decisive when achieved during the endgame phase of play.

32. Draw
A game that ends without victory for either player. Most drawn games are draws by agreement. The other ways that a game can end in a draw are stalemate, threefold repetition, the fifty-move rule, and insufficient material.

33. Draw odds
A type of chess handicap where one player (Black in an Armageddon game) only has to draw in order to win the match.

34. Duffer
A weak chess player, also referred to as a "fish", "patzer" or "woodpusher."

35. Dynamism
A style of play in which the activity of the pieces is favoured over more positional considerations, even to the point of accepting permanent structural or spatial weaknesses. Dynamism stemmed from the teachings of the 'Hypermodern movement' and challenged the dogma found in more classical teachings, such as those put forward by Wilhelm Steinitz and Siegbert Tarrasch.