Post Tue May 29, 2012 2:47 pm

Glossary of chess-3

Glossary of chess


1. ECO
The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, a standard and comprehensive chess opening reference. Also a classification system (ECO code) for chess openings that assigns an alphanumeric code from A00 to E99 to each opening.

2. Edge
An edge is a small but meaningful advantage in the position against one's opponent. It is often said White has an edge in the starting position, since he moves first (see First move advantage in chess).

3. Elo rating system

The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of chess players, named after the Hungarian Arpad Elo. Since 1970 FIDE publishes quarterly an international chess rating list using the Elo system.

4. En passant
The rule that allows a pawn that has just advanced two squares to be captured by a pawn on the same rank and adjacent file. The pawn is therefore taken as if it had only moved one space. It is only possible to take en passant on the next move.

En Passant>> viewtopic.php?f=21&t=3257

5. Endgame
The stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. The endgame follows the middlegame.

6. Endgame tablebase
A computerized database of endgames with up to seven pieces, providing perfect play for both players, and thus completely solving those endgames. (The six-piece endgames have been finished; some seven-piece endgames have been finished as of 2008.)

7. Epaulette mate
A checkmate position where the king is blocked on both sides by his own rooks.

8. Extended Position Description (EPD)
A Forsyth-Edwards Notation derivative format that contains the position on the chessboard, but not the game. It is primarily used to test chess engines.

9. Equalise/Equalize
To create a position where the players have equal chances of winning (referred to as "equality"). This may be either "static equality", where a draw is likely (for example, a balanced endgame) or even certain (for example, by perpetual check), or "dynamic equality", where White and Black have equal chances of winning the game. In opening theory, since White has the advantage of the first move, lines that equalize are relatively good for Black and bad for White.

10. Escape square
A square to which a piece can move, which allows it to escape attack. See also flight square and luft.

11. Exchange
The capture of a pair of pieces, one white and the other black, usually of the same type (i.e rook for rook, knight for knight etc.), or of bishop for knight (two pieces that are considered almost equal in value).
The exchange is used to refer to the advantage of a rook over a minor piece (knight or bishop). The player who captures a rook while losing a minor piece is said to have won the exchange, and the opponent is said to have lost the exchange. An exchange sacrifice is giving up a rook for a minor piece.

12. Exchange variation

This is a type of opening in which there is an early, voluntary exchange of pawns or pieces.

13. Exhibition
A contest of one or more games played for the purpose of public entertainment, as opposed to a match or tournament. An exhibition may pit two masters against each other, in which case chess clocks are normally used and the contest is quite serious. A simultaneous exhibition (or display) has one or more masters play many celebrity or amateur opponents at once, and is often not timed.

14. Expanded centre
The central sixteen squares on the board.

15. Family fork, family check
A knight fork that simultaneously attacks the enemy king (giving check), queen, and possibly other pieces.

16. Fast chess(Blitz)
A form of chess in which both sides are given less time to make their moves than under the normal tournament time controls. See also blitz chess.

Blitz: viewtopic.php?f=21&t=63

17. FEN
Abbreviation for Forsyth-Edwards Notation, which is a standard notation for describing a particular board position of a chess game. The purpose of FEN notation is to provide all the necessary information to restart a game from a particular position.

18. Fianchetto
Refers to a bishop developed to the second square and the longest diagonal on the file of the adjacent knight (that is, b2 or g2 for white, b7 or g7 for black), or the process of developing a bishop to such a square. It usually occurs after moving the pawn on that file ahead one square (or perhaps two). The Italian word is actually a noun ("in fianchetto") and not a verb.

19. FIDE
The World Chess Federation (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), the primary international chess organizing and governing body. The abbreviated name FIDE is nearly always used in place of the full name in French.


20. FIDE Master (FM)
A chess title ranking below International Master.


21. Fifty-move rule
A draw may be claimed if no capture or pawn move has occurred in the last fifty moves by either side.

22. File
A column of the chessboard. A specific file can be named either using its position in algebraic notation, a–h, or by using its position in descriptive notation. For example, the f-file or the king bishop file comprises the squares f1–f8 (or KB1–KB8 in descriptive chess notation).

23. First-move advantage
The slight (by most accounts) advantage that White has by virtue of moving first.

24. Fischer delay
A time control method with time delay, invented by Robert Fischer. When it becomes a player's turn to move, the delay is added to the player's remaining time.

25. Fischer Random

26. Flag
Part of an analogue chess clock (usually red) which indicates when the minute hand passes the hour. To flag someone means winning the game on the basis of the opponent exceeding the time control.

27. Flank
The queenside a, b, and c-files, or the kingside f, g, and h-files, also called wing; distinguished from the center d and e-files.

28. Flank opening

This a chess opening played by White and typified by play on one or both flanks.

29. Flight square
A square to which a piece can move, which allows it to escape attack. See also escape square and luft.

30. Focal point
The square upon which a player focuses an attack, e.g. by repeatedly attacking that square or sacrificing a piece there. For example, in an attack upon an uncastled king, Black's f7 square (or White's f2 square) is a common focal point. Examples of attacks on the focal point f7 include the Fried Liver Attack (initiated by a knight sacrifice on f7) and the primitive Scholar's Mate (ending with checkmate on f7).

31. Fool's Mate
The shortest possible chess game ending in mate: 1. f3 e5 2. g4 Qh4# (or minor variations on this).

32. Forced move
A move which is the only one which does not result in a serious disadvantage for the moving player. "Forced" can also be used to describe a sequence of moves for which the player has no viable alternative, e.g. "the forced win of a piece" or "a forced checkmate". In these cases the player cannot avoid the loss of a piece or checkmate, respectively.

33. Forfeit
Refers to losing the game by absence or by exceeding the time control (forfeit on time).

34. Fork
When one piece, generally a knight or pawn, simultaneously attacks two (or more) of the opponent's pieces, often specifically called a knight fork when the attacker is a knight. Some sources state that only a knight can give a fork and that the term double attack is correct when another piece is involved, but this is by no means a universal usage.

35. Fortress
A fortress is a position that, if obtained by the weaker side, will prevent the opposing side from penetration, this generally resulting in a draw (which the weaker side is seeking).

36. Friendly game
A game that is not played as part of a match, tournament, or exhibition. Often the game is not timed, but if a chess clock is used rapid time-controls are common. The term refers only to the circumstances in which the game is played, not the relationship between the players or the intensity of the competition. Also called a casual game.